Sunday, May 24, 2020

Japans Genpei War, 1180 - 1185

Date: 1180-1185 Location: Honshu and Kyushu, Japan Outcome: Minamoto clan prevails and almost wipes out Taira; Heian era ends and Kamakura shogunate begins The Genpei War (also romanized as Gempei War) in Japan was the first conflict between large samurai factions.  Although it happened nearly 1,000 years ago, people today still remember the names and accomplishments of some of the great warriors who fought in this civil war. Sometimes compared with Englands War of the Roses, the Genpei War featured two families fighting for power.  White was the clan color of the Minamoto, like the House of York, while the Taira used red like the Lancasters.  However, the Genpei War predated the Wars of the Roses by three hundred years.  In addition, the Minamoto and Taira were not fighting to take the throne of Japan; instead, each wanted to control the imperial succession. Lead-up to the War The Taira and Minamoto clans were rival powers behind the throne. They sought to control the emperors by having their own favorite candidates take the throne.  In the Hogen Disturbance of 1156 and the Heiji Disturbance of 1160, though, it was the Taira who came out on top.   Both families had daughters who had married into the imperial line.  However, after the Taira victories in the disturbances, Taira no Kiyomori became the Minister of State; as a result, he was able to ensure that his daughters three-year-old son became the next emperor in March of 1180.  It was the enthronement of little Emperor Antoku that led the Minamoto to revolt. War Breaks Out On May 5, 1180, Minamoto Yoritomo and his favored candidate for the throne, Prince Mochihito, sent out a call to war.  They rallied samurai families related to or allied with the Minamoto, as well as warrior monks from various Buddhist monasteries.  By June 15, Minister Kiyomori had issued a warrant for his arrest, so Prince Mochihito was forced to flee Kyoto and seek refuge in the monastery of Mii-dera.  With thousands of Taira troops marching toward the monastery, the prince and 300 Minamoto warriors raced south toward Nara, where additional warrior monks would reinforce them. The exhausted prince had to stop to rest, however, so the Minamoto forces took refuge with the monks at the easily defensible monastery of Byodo-in.  They hoped that monks from Nara would arrive to reinforce them before the Taira army did.  Just in case, however, they tore the planks from the only bridge across the river to Byodo-in. At first light the next day, June 20, the Taira army marched quietly up to Byodo-in, hidden by thick fog.  The Minamoto suddenly heard the Taira war-cry  and replied with their own.  A fierce battle followed, with monks and samurai firing arrows through the mist at one another.  Soldiers from the Tairas allies, the Ashikaga, forded the river and pressed the attack.  Prince Mochihito tried to escape to Nara in the chaos, but the Taira caught up with him and executed him.  The Nara monks marching toward Byodo-in heard that they were too late to help the Minamoto, and turned back.  Minamoto Yorimasa, meanwhile, committed the first classical seppuku in history, writing a death poem on his war-fan, and then cutting open his own abdomen. It seemed that the Minamoto revolt and thus the Genpei War had come to an abrupt end.  In vengeance, the Taira sacked and burned the monasteries that had offered aid to the Minamoto, slaughtering thousands of monks and burning Kofuku-ji and Todai-ji in Nara to the ground. Yoritomo Takes Over The leadership of the Minamoto clan passed to the 33-year-old Minamoto no Yoritomo, who was living as a hostage in the home of a Taira-allied family.  Yoritomo soon learned that there was a bounty on his head.  He organized some local Minamoto allies, and escaped from the Taira, but lost most of his small army in the Battle of Ishibashiyama on September 14.  Yoritomo escaped with his life, fleeing into the woods with Taira pursuers close behind.   Yoritomo made it to the town of Kamakura, which was solidly Minamoto territory.  He called in reinforcements from all of the allied families in the area.  On November 9, 1180, at the so-called Battle of the Fujigawa (Fuji River), the Minamoto and allies faced an over-extended Taira army.  With poor leadership and long supply lines, the Taira decided to withdraw back to Kyoto without offering a fight.   A hilarious and likely exaggerated account of the events at Fujigawa in the Heiki Monogatari claims that a flock of water-fowl on the river marshes was started into flight in the middle of the night.  Hearing the thunder of their wings, the Taira soldiers panicked and fled, grabbing bows without arrows or taking their arrows but leaving their bows.  The record even claims that Taira troops were mounting tethered animals and whipping them up so that they galloped round and round the post to which they were tied. Whatever the true cause of the Taira retreat, there followed a two-year lull in the fighting.  Japan faced a series of droughts and floods that destroyed the rice and barley crops in 1180 and 1181.  Famine and disease ravaged the countryside; an estimated 100,000 died.  Many people blamed the Taira, who had slaughtered monks and burned down temples.  They believed that the Taira had brought down the wrath of the gods with their impious actions, and noted that Minamoto lands did not suffer as badly as those controlled by the Taira. Fighting began again in July of 1182, and the Minamoto had a new champion called Yoshinaka, a rough-hewn cousin of Yoritomos, but an excellent general.  As Minamoto Yoshinaka won skirmishes against the Taira  and considered marching on Kyoto, Yoritomo grew increasingly concerned about his cousins ambitions.  He sent an army against Yoshinaka in the spring of 1183, but the two sides managed to negotiate a settlement rather than fighting one another. Fortunately for them, the Taira were in disarray.  They had conscripted a huge army, marching forth on May 10, 1183, but were so disorganized that their food ran out just nine miles east of Kyoto.  The officers ordered the conscripts to plunder food as they passed from their own provinces, which were just recovering from the famine.  This prompted mass desertions. As they entered Minamoto territory, the Taira divided their army into two forces.  Minamoto Yoshinaka managed to lure the larger section into a narrow valley; at the Battle of Kurikara, according to the epics, Seventy thousand horsemen of the Taira perish[ed], buried in this one deep valley; the mountain streams ran with their blood... This would prove the turning point in the Genpei War. Minamoto In-Fighting Kyoto erupted in panic at the news of the Taira defeat in Kurikara.  On August 14, 1183, the Taira fled the capital.  They took along most of the imperial family, including the child emperor, and the crown jewels.  Three days later, Yoshinakas branch of the Minamoto army marched into Kyoto, accompanied by the former Emperor Go-Shirakawa. Yoritomo was nearly as panicked as the Taira were by his cousins triumphal march.  However, Yoshinaka soon earned the hatred of the citizens of Kyoto, allowing his troops to pillage and rob people regardless of their political affiliation.  In February of 1184, Yoshinaka heard that Yoritomos army was coming to the capital to expel him, led by another cousin, Yoritomos courtly younger brother Minamoto Yoshitsune.  Yoshitsunes men quickly dispatched Yoshinakas army.  Yoshinakas wife, the famous female samurai Tomoe Gozen, is said to have escaped after taking a head as a trophy.  Yoshinaka himself was beheaded while trying to escape on February 21, 1184. End of the War and Aftermath: What remained of the Taira loyalist army retreated into their heartland.  It took the Minamoto some time to mop them up.  Almost a year after Yoshitsune ousted his cousin from Kyoto, in February of 1185, the Minamoto seized the Taira fortress and make-shift capital at Yashima.   On March 24, 1185, the final major battle of the Genpei War took place.  It was a naval battle in the Shimonoseki Strait, a half-day fight called the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Minamoto no Yoshitsune commanded his clans fleet of 800 ships, while Taira no Munemori led the Taira fleet, 500 strong.  The Taira were more familiar with the tides and currents in the area, so initially were able to surround the larger Minamoto fleet and pin them down with long-range archery shots.  The fleets closed in for hand-to-hand combat, with samurai leaping aboard their opponents ships and fighting with long and short swords.  As the battle wore on, the turning tide forced the Taira ships up against the rocky coastline, pursued by the Minamoto fleet. When the tides of battle turned against them, so to speak, many of the Taira samurai jumped into the sea to drown rather than being killed by the Minamoto.  The seven-year-old Emperor Antoku and his grandmother also jumped in and perished.  Local people believe that small crabs that live in the Shimonoseki Strait are possessed by the ghosts of the Taira samurai; the crabs have a pattern on their shells that looks like a samurais face. After the Genpei War, Minamoto Yoritomo formed the first bakufu and ruled as Japans first shogun from his capital at Kamakura.  The Kamakura shogunate was the first of various bakufu that would rule the country until 1868  when the Meiji Restoration returned political power to the emperors. Ironically, within thirty years of the Minamoto victory in the Genpei War, political power would be usurped from them by regents (shikken) from the Hojo clan.  And who were they?  Well, the Hojo were a branch of the Taira family. Sources Arnn, Barbara L.  Local Legends of the Genpei War: Reflections of Medieval Japanese History, Asian Folklore Studies, 38:2 (1979), pp. 1-10. Conlan, Thomas.  The Nature of Warfare in Fourteenth-Century Japan: The Record of Nomoto Tomoyuki, Journal for Japanese Studies, 25:2 (1999), pp. 299-330. Hall, John W.  The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1990). Turnbull, Stephen.  The Samurai: A Military History, Oxford: Routledge (2013).

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Media Plays a Hand in Anorexia Essay - 1181 Words

What causes anorexia nervosa, a terrible mental disease which leads victims to starve themselves, sometimes to death? The message to be thin is transmitted to adolescents at an early age. The media is a strong supporter of this image, the thought that thin is desirable is shown through the advertisements that consumers are exposed to everyday. People constantly hear that thin is desirable and are shown this very fact through advertisements and videos. The media may not be the sole cause of anorexia but the effect that the media has on children can not be over looked. There are multiple factors that can contribute to the desire to be thin; the media is one factor in the equation that can not be so easily overlooked. Anorexia and Bulimia†¦show more content†¦Women were, and still are willing, to sacrifice comfort and endure a large amount of pain in order to obtain this ideal image. During the 19th century women with tiny waist and large bustles became highly desired. In order to obtain this ideal image many women had a rib removed in order to decrease their waist size. By doing this there was an extreme chance that they could become sick, in many cases it could lead to a shortness of breath and lead to pneumonia. The beginning of the 20th century sparked the trend of women cutting their hair short and taking up boyish actions. It was seen as fashionable to be angular, thin, and boyish looking (Derenne, Jennifer). This image quickly grew due to the constant advertisement of the flapper. The image of the flappers grew rapidly through the 1920’s. Current Media Influence Women are faced with unrealistic expectations almost every time they are presented with a form of advertisement. This idea is expressed through advertisements that feature a naked woman’s body tempting viewers to buy an electronic organizer, partially exposed woman’s breast being used to sell fishing line, or a woman’s rear being used to pitch a new running shoe (Heldman, 2008, p.1). These advertisements all show lean and curvy figures that are supposed to be seen as desirable. Research has shown that regular readers of fashion and beauty magazines in early adolescence are more likely to suffer from distortedShow MoreRelatedMedia’s Blow on Anorexia1054 Words   |  5 PagesMedia’s Blow on Anorexia About one in 200 persons in the United States will develop anorexia nervosa at some time. Ninety Percent are women (Anorexia Nervosa—Part 1 1). Anorexia is defined as an emotional disorder characterized by refusing to diet or eat. This is targeting young girls all across the world! This calamity is struck by something every person loves, social media. The media realm needs to be ceased from the websites that support dieting, celebrities displaying perfectionist bodiesRead MoreMedias Role in Anorexia796 Words   |  3 PagesMedia’s Role in Anorexia Many individual’s today would argue that most health problems develop from media. For example, the Modeling Industry is mainly nothing but tall and very slender women. Most would agree that adolescent females see the size of most models and assume that is what is considered beauty. Media does not promote anorexia to distort women’s body images. Most women that starve themselves do not do it because of television, movies, or magazines, etc. They starve themselves to makeRead MoreTaking a Look at Teenagers and Anorexia Essay1078 Words   |  5 PagesAnorexia Teenagers across America have a number of problems that they have to deal with everyday, whether it is bullying, stress, friends, school, or body image. Body image is something that is especially sensitive to adolescents and is a growing issue in the modern day. Teens, especially girls, are the most self-conscious group of people so it is not surprising that eating disorders are most likely to develop when a girl or boy becomes a teenager. Anorexia is the most common eating disorderRead MoreA World Riddled By Social Expectations And Beauty Ideals1304 Words   |  6 PagesEven when knowing the biological etiology of mental disorders, the culture and environment is still important in regards to the presentation as well as the commonality of these illnesses. In a world riddled by social expectations and beauty ideals, anorexia nervosa (AN) is a prime example of how culture must be examined in conjunction with the prior biological knowledge. Several factors of this single disorder can appreciably vary among different cultures which has implications on the etiology withRead More Eating Disorders Essay1010 Words   |  5 Pagesthese are; Anorexia nervosa, Binge eating and Bulimia nervosa. However this disorder affects individuals of various age groups; it has become more popular among teenagers these days. For the purpose of this research plan the writer will focus on age group of ages 15 to 19 because teenagers most vulnerable to eating disorders fall into this age group. Moreover, in doing so it will also be possible to determine the significance of this research and apply it to today’s lifestyle. Anorexia is a medicalRead MoreSociology Essay: â€Å"How Far Would Sociologists Agree That the Media Causes Eating Disorders in Women?898 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"How far would sociologists agree that the media causes eating disorders in women? In this essay I will discuss how far sociologists would agree that the media causes eating disorders in women. Eating disorders refer to a group of conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the damage of an individuals physical and emotional health. Eating disorders include: bulimia, anorexia and obesity. First Marxists would argue allRead MoreEating Disorders and Western Culture845 Words   |  3 Pagesscoffed earlier. Two of the most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The regular description of a patient with either disease would be a youthful white female, with an upper social standing in a predictably socially competitive environment. At present, these eating disorders have an effect on roughly 25 million Americans, of which almost 25% are of the male gender. Out of all the psychological disorders, anorexia has the highest mortality rate. The whys and wherefores includeRead MoreAnorexia Nervosa (Phychology)1084 Words   |  5 Pagesas a mental disorder is Anorexia Nervosa. The main characteristics of this disorder are weight loss. It is less than 85% of what it should be for the person’s age, height and build. The person is always anxious about getting fat, even if they are underweight. They have a distorted body image- always feeling fat when they are thin. Absence of menstrual periods in female sufferers depending on ages can indicate anorexia. Several causes have been suggested for anorexia. The biological approachRead MoreDiagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders1631 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (2013) or DSM-5 outlines the four feeding and eating disorders as, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge-Eating Disorder, and Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorder (OSFED). These are complex and highly devastating disorders that cause health, emotional, and relationship problems (NEDA, 2016). These conditions should not be taken lightly due to their potential to cause long term emotional and physicalRead MoreTeen s Body Image And Eating Disorders996 Words   |  4 PagesSince they grow up in a world filled with mass media such as television, films, magazines, movies, music, newspaper and the Internet, it is very easy to come across this ideal body image (Morris Katzman, 2003). As teen girls associate with this ideal thinness they tend to be dissatisfied with their own body image, which can put them at risk for serious eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (Kerr 2010). D epression also plays a part in the dissatisfied body image of adolescent

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The United States Department Of Defense - 2228 Words

The headquarters for the United States Department of Defense has twice the number of bathrooms needed for a building its size. Known more commonly as â€Å"the Pentagon† after its unique, five walled frame, the defense building was constructed during the early 1940’s in Virginia, where a code of regulations dubbed the â€Å"Jim Crow laws† required people of color to use separate facilities from white citizens. The Jim Crow laws segregated schools, transportation and public places. Although they claimed to make colored and Caucasian citizens â€Å"separate but equal† they typically left African Americans with inferior conditions and facilities; their libraries only carried secondhand books, their schools were overcrowded and underfunded, and they†¦show more content†¦The story is told from the perspective of two children, Jean Louise (Scout) Finch and her brother Jeremy (Jem) Finch, growing up in Maycomb, Alabama, a small, sleepy town in the Ameri can South during the early 1930’s. As Jem and Scout mature, people in Maycomb, like a poor classmate, their elusive neighbor and a wrongly convicted African American, teach them the immorality of discrimination and the inaccuracy of stereotypes. One of the characters affected most dramatically by stereotyping in To Kill a Mockingbird is Walter Cunningham, a poor farmer’s son, who is discriminated against because of his status in society. When Scout is rude to Walter after she and her brother invite him to their house for lunch. Scout tells her cook, Calpurnia, She does not have to be polite to Walter because,â€Å"he ain’t company... he’s just a Cunningham† (Lee 24). Although Scout does not know Walter very well at the time of her statement, her opinion of him has been prematurely influenced by Walters place in society. Scout claims â€Å"he ain’t company† (24) because he belongs to a poor, low class family, the Cunninghams. She believes that Walter’s supposed commonality means he does not need to be treated with the same courtesy she shows other guests. Even at a young age, Scout has been influenced by the corrupt belief that some people are born better or more important than others, and stereotypes Walter as someone unimportant. However, as time wears on Scout comes to know Walter better and view

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Relevance of Chaucers Canterbury Tales for Today free essay sample

This paper is a discussion of three characters from the Canterbury Tales and relates them to a modern audience. This paper discusses The Canterbury Tales and the character of the Parson, who is a perfect example and holds every quality a devout church leader is expected to have. His life is contrasted with that of Monk and Friar who are the exact opposites of the Parson as their lives consist of greed, gluttony and lustfulness. The current church leadership, and Mother Teresa are used as modern day examples of goodness and greed. The First way the Canterbury Tales is relevant to a modern audience is through the powerful characterization of the Parson. He is a perfect example and holds every quality a devout church leader is expected to have. The purpose for his journey to Canterbury is to enhance his own spirituality, the ideal reason for going on this pilgrimage. The Parson is an educated man and, unlike many of the others, he is very honorable. We will write a custom essay sample on Relevance of Chaucers Canterbury Tales for Today or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He practices what he preaches and knows that he is an example for others to follow.

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Michelangelo Essays (1626 words) - Sistine Chapel, Painted Ceilings

Michelangelo Michelangelo was pessimistic in his poetry and an optimist in his artwork. Michelangelo's artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it's natural state. Michelangelo's poetry was pessimistic in his response to Strazzi even though he was complementing him. Michelangelo's sculpture brought out his optimism. Michelangelo was optimistic in completing The Tomb of Pope Julius II and persevered through it's many revisions trying to complete his vision. Sculpture was Michelangelo's main goal and the love of his life. Since his art portrayed both optimism and pessimism, Michelangelo was in touch with his positive and negative sides, showing that he had a great and stable personality. Michelangelo's artwork consisted of paintings and sculptures that showed humanity in it's natural state. Michelangelo Buonarroti was called to Rome in 1505 by Pope Julius II to create for him a monumental tomb. We have no clear sense of what the tomb was to look like, since over the years it went through at least five conceptual revisions. The tomb was to have three levels; the bottom level was to have sculpted figures representing Victory and bond slaves. The second level was to have statues of Moses and Saint Paul as well as symbolic figures of the active and contemplative life-representative of the human striving for, and reception of, knowledge. The third level, it is assumed, was to have an effigy of the deceased pope. The tomb of Pope Julius II was never finished. What was finished of the tomb represents a twenty-year span of frustrating delays and revised schemes. Michelangelo had hardly begun work on the pope's tomb when Julius commanded him to fresco the ceiling of the Sisti ne Chapel to complete the work done in the previous century under Sixtus IV. The overall organization consists of four large triangles at the corner; a series of eight triangular spaces on the outer border; an intermediate series of figures; and nine central panels, all bound together with architectural motifs and nude male figures. The corner triangles depict heroic action in the Old Testament, while the other eight triangles depict the biblical ancestors of Jesus Christ. Michelangelo conceived and executed this huge work as a single unit. It's overall meaning is a problem. The issue has engaged historians of art for generations without satisfactory resolution. The paintings that were done by Michelangelo had been painted with the brightest colors that just bloomed the whole ceiling as one entered to look. The ceiling had been completed just a little after the Pope had died. The Sistine Chapel is the best fresco ever done. Michelangelo embodied many characteristic qualities of the Renaissance. An individualistic, highly competitive genius (sometimes to the point of eccentricity). Michelangelo was not afraid to show humanity in it's natural state - nakedness; even in front of the Pope and the other religious leaders. Michelangelo portrayed life as it is, even with it's troubles. Michelangelo wanted to express his own artistic ideas. The most puzzling thing about Michelangelo's ceiling design is the great number of seemingly irrelevant nude figures that he included in his gigantic fresco. Four youths frame most of the Genesis scenes. We know from historical records that various church officials objected to the many nudes, but Pope Julius gave Michelangelo artistic freedom, and eventually ruled the chapel off limits to anyone save himself, until the painting was completed. The many nude figures are referred to as Ignudi. They are naked humans, perhaps representing the naked truth. More likely, I think the y represent Michelangelo's concept of the human potential for perfection. Michelangelo himself said, "Whoever strives for perfection is striving for something divine." In painting nude humans, he is suggesting the unfinished human; each of us is born nude with a mind and a body, in Neoplatonic thought, with the power to be our own shapers. Michelangelo has a very great personality for his time. In Rome, in 1536, Michelangelo was at work on the Last Judgment for the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, which he finished in 1541. The largest fresco of the Renaissance, it depicts Judgment Day. Christ, with a clap of thunder, puts into motion the inevitable separation, with the saved ascending on the left side of the painting and

Sunday, March 8, 2020

7 Religious Christmas Quotes About Jesus

7 Religious Christmas Quotes About Jesus Christmas reminds us of  the trials and tribulations of Jesus Christ, and what better way to remember the reason for the season than religious quotes  that focus on the life of the savior.  The remarks that follow, both from the Bible and from prominent Christians,  serve as a reminder that good always triumphs over evil. D. James Kennedy, Christmas Stories for the Heart The star of Bethlehem was a star of hope that led the wise men to the fulfillment of their expectations, the success of their expedition. Nothing in this world is more fundamental for success in life than hope, and this star pointed to our only source for true hope: Jesus Christ. Samuel Johnson The Church does not superstitiously observe days, merely as days, but as memorials of important facts. Christmas might be kept as well upon one day of the year as another; but there should be a stated day for commemorating the birth of our Saviour, because there is danger that what may be done on any day, will be neglected. Luke 2:9-14 And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were so  afraid. And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. George W. Truett Christ was born in the first century, yet he belongs to all centuries. He was born a Jew, yet He belongs to all races. He was born in Bethlehem, yet He belongs to all countries. Matthew 2:1-2 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying, where is he that is born King of the Jews? For we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. Larry Libby, Christmas Stories for the Heart Late on a sleepy, star-spangled night, those angels peeled back the sky just like you would tear open a sparkling Christmas present. Then, with light and joy pouring out of Heaven like water through a broken dam, they began to shout and sing the message that baby Jesus had been born. The world had a Savior! The angels called it Good News, and it was. Matthew 1:21 And she will bear a Son, and you shall call His name Jesus, for it is He who will save His people from their sins.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Change in Employee Relations in United Kingdom Essay

Change in Employee Relations in United Kingdom - Essay Example Majority of the employees give preference to work in a better work atmosphere than working in a poor work atmosphere with higher pay. Globalization and other changes that took place in the world caused a drastic change in the employee relation. Huge difference can be seen in between the present form of employee relation and traditional way of employee relation. This paper makes an attempt to evaluate the changes in the employee relation in last 30 years and its importance in the future developments in the context of United Kingdom. Though there may be some variations in employee relation or industrial relations practices in various countries, changes are taking place in various countries in almost similar manner. Decades back, each country may have its own industrial practice, but now due to globalization and advancement of technology majority of the countries' employee relation practices are more or less similar. Today the industrial relation is very important and a widely discussed subject and has a great significance in the growth of industries. The terms labour relation and industrial relation are interchangeably used (Bean, 1994). A good industrial relation has a significant role in the success of any kind of business. Appalachian State University defines employee relations as "it involves the body of work concerned with maintaining employer-employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale" (Staff-employee relations, n. d.). Disputes are common at work places. If there is a better labour relation this disputes can be minimized. If the employer is interacting with the employees in a better way it can increase the loyalty of the employees, thereby increasing the productivity of the organisation. Overview of different issues of employee relation Here are different issues related to the employee relation that requires detailed discussion and is always a topic of debate for the experts in this field. Some of the issues are employee grievances, employee wellness, employee compensation, employee discrimination, employee promotion...etc. The management especially human resource management team should be efficient enough to maintain an efficient employee relation in an organisation. 1. Employee grievances handling: Employee grievances are common at work place. If the management t failed properly solves the grievances of employee s o it may cause serious problems to the organization including losing of efficient employees. Employees would not be ready to work in organization where their grievances are not properly solved. There are no industrial concerns which are working smoothly at all times. In some concern employee have complaints against employers. In some other cases employers may have complaints against employees. This is happening mainly due to lack of better employee relation. These grievances may be real, imaginary, valid, invalid, genuine, not genuine etc. Generally speaking complaints affecting one or more employees may be treated as grievances. Grievance is a feeling of discontent or dissatisfaction among workers regarding anything concerned with the company (Som, n. d.). Causes of grievances: There may be variety of reasons for grievance. Some of them are explained below. a. Difference in opinion: The management and